It is the process that begins with the vision of No. 1 of the organization; the mission of the organization; set objectives, strategies and organizational policies, using the Strategic Map as a tool; all this taking into account the strengths / weaknesses of the organization and the opportunities / threats of the context (SWOT Analysis). The planning and administration covers the long term (from 5 years to 10 years or more), the medium term (between 1 years and 5 years) and the short term where the annual budget is developed in more detail.
Answer the questions of Who? will perform the task, involves designing the organization chart of the organization defining responsibilities and obligations; how? the task is going to be done; when? it’s going to be done; through the design of Business Process, Courses that establish the way in which tasks should be performed and in what time sequence; In short, organizing is coordinating and synchronizing.
It is persuasion, which is exercised through Leadership on individuals to achieve the objectives set; based on decision making using logical and intuitive models of decision making.
It is the measurement of the performance of the executed, comparing it with the objectives and goals set; deviations are detected and the necessary measures are taken to correct them. The control is carried out at strategic level, tactical level and operational level; the entire organization is evaluated, through a management control system; On the other hand, external audits are also contracted, where the different functional areas of the organization are analyzed and controlled.
Relationship of the administration with other sciences.
Relationship of the administration with the Social Sciences
- Sociology: Science that deals with the constitution and human societies.
- Psychology: Science that deals with the soul, with the phenomena of consciousness. Character, of being.
- Law: Study of laws and regulations to which all civil society is subject.
- Economy: Science that is responsible for the study of the mechanisms that regulate the production, distribution and consumption of wealth.
- Anthropology: Science that deals with the study of man.
Management relationship with Exact Sciences
- Mathematics: Science that is responsible for the study of abstract systems (numbers, geometric figures, etc.)
Management relationship with Technical Disciplines
- Industrial engineering: Application of scientific knowledge to research, improvement and use of industrial technique in all its branches.
- Accounting: Science of keeping accounts.
- Ergonomics: Also known as human engineering, design of instruments, equipment and work facilities, according to human anatomical features including psychological aspects.
- Cybernetics: Science that studies the automatic mechanisms of machines.
Main theories, schools and administration approaches
In this subtitle they will be listed according to how they were appearing and developing, they are:
- Scientific theory of administration.
- Classical theory of the organization.
- Focus on human relationships.
- School of administrative sciences.
- Systems approach
- Contingency approach.
- Human resources approach.
Scientific theory of administration
Theories as a result of the situation at a given stage had their precursors that were personalities in their time and that contributed very important elements that served as the basis for their appearance and development. Among those personalities are:
Adam Smith , whose contribution on aspects related to the division of labor had an impact on the economy of time and labor, raised a series of ideas related to the economy that are expressed in his work “The wealth of nations” which was an attempt to lead the economy towards an independent science, this work is based on the class and liberal political economy, so Smith is recognized as “The Father of economic liberalism” by basing his economic policy on a “natural law” which implied the non-intervention of the State and non-limited competition.
Several important figures such as Henry Gantt and the husbands Gilbreth (Frank and Llilian) contributed to Taylor .
The scientific theory of administration is characterized, among others, by the following aspects:
- Division of activities into very simple tasks which were performed by the workers in the amount of one or two, which were repeated in their execution.
- Separation of management activities from executing activities.
- Limited knowledge of the workers, only about the activities to be carried out, which as explained were very simple. A simple tasks simple workouts.
- The increase in productivity was sought on the basis of strict control over, the methods used in the work process, the movements that were executed and the measurement of their time, the determination of work rates.
- Monetary incentive system by increasing the salary of workers who obtained the best work results.
- Consider man as “rational” encouraged only by economic elements.
- The alleged cooperation between the administration and the workers would allow
Henry Fayol , explained that administrative activities should be divided into six parts those that maintained a close relationship, which were: Technique, which would deal with production; Administrative, which would develop the management functions; Commercial, for purchases and sales; Accountant; Financial, to manage capital; Security, protection of employees and assets.
Fayol planteó catorce principios sobre la administración, algunos mantienen vigencia y se utilizan con frecuencia hoy día. Los principios enunciados fueron: división del trabajo, autoridad, unidad de mando, unidad de dirección, disciplina, centralización, jerarquía, remuneración, subordinación del interés individual al interés del grupo u organización, orden, equidad, iniciativa, espíritu de equipo y estabilidad del personal.
Max Weber, with his bureaucratic conception of administration , was a great contributor to the development of classical theory, he argued, that a well-defined hierarchy with written and precise concepts, rules, norms and procedures contributed to the development and performance of the organization. His managerial style and administrative technique were based on centralization and authoritarianism. He also suggested that the only way for an organization to survive in the long term was under strong regulations.
Another of his criteria expressed that performance evaluations should be performed on the merits of workers.
This theory has the following characteristics:
- The criteria formulated should be based on the fourteen principles stated, which according to this theory can be taught.
- Charges are the essential element of the bureaucratic administrative aspect.
- Its basis is governed by regulations, rules and written procedures.
- Grouping of the activities to be carried out in the six planned parts.
- Superior effectiveness and efficiency are guaranteed through a strictly defined hierarchical authority.
Focus on human relationships
With the classical school it was concluded that the human being was motivated by his economic needs, an issue that was refuted by some of the students of the subject, so he has continued working on the search for more updated criteria and at the same time taking into account other aspects, also obtaining other important conclusions.
One of the interpretations that were made about the investigations was that the workers improved their performance because of the attention they had been given when carrying out the study, this fact was called “Hawthorne Effect”.
This approach or movement of human relations posed another version that consisted in the fact that man was motivated by his social needs and that the compulsion of the group was an important factor as well.
School of Administrative Sciences
It consists of the creation of multidisciplinary teams, especially in mathematics, physics and other disciplines, which were called operations research teams (IO), which were used in the presentation, to managers and heads of organizations , of troubleshooting.
Subsequently, with the appearance of computers, other possibilities appeared that allowed to deepen and expand the number of variables, as well as improve the results of the solutions, being able to create models that simulated more accurately the real situation, changing the variables themselves or their values and lighten the time of realization by the speed of calculation of the equipment.
Of great repercussion and interest is the systems approach, which points out and expresses the organization as a system formed by various interrelated and interdependent subsystems, so it does not value it in parts but as a whole in an integral way, taking into account not only the internal aspect but also the environment of the organization.
The systems approach is characterized and defined within the administration as a system formed by its parts which interact with each other, affecting their variations to all others, not always in the same way and magnitude.
Based on observations made by students of the subject, researchers, bosses and administrators, where similar events were applied in multiple events similar to those already used and the results obtained were not as expected.
The aforementioned was explained by the change of situation in the conditions of the environment, so before using a theory or approach, the environment should be taken into account based on the changes that originate in it and seek changes in the environment. organizational development process.
Human resources approach
The second half of the last century was characterized by the great variety of research and experiments carried out on various aspects of great influence in the successful development of human resources management and other organizational processes.
In this approach, the relationship between bosses and workers requires a depth and complexity that allows for greater interrelation between both parties, with the objective that high levels of performance can be achieved by workers through the deployment of their knowledge, their initiative and their creativity.
Se requiere que todos los administradores empeñen funciones que tiene una naturaleza ceremonial y simbólica. Cuando el rector de una universidad entrega diplomas en una graduación, o un supervisor de fabricación acompaña en una visita a la planta a un grupo de estudiantes de preparatoria, actúan en un papel de representación y figura decorativa. Todos los administradores tienen un rol de líder. Este rol incluye la contratación, capacitación, motivación, y disciplina de los empleados. El tercer rol dentro del agrupamiento interpersonal es el de enlace.
Mintzberg described this activity as the contact from external sources that provide information to the administrator. These sources are individuals or groups outside the administrator unit and can be found inside or outside the organization. The sales manager who obtains information from the personnel manager in the same company has an internal liaison relationship.
All administrators, to a certain degree, receive and capture information from organizations outside theirs. Typically, these are done by reading magazines and talking with other people to know the changes in the tastes of the public, which may be planning competitors and similar things. This is what Mintzberg called the monitoring or surveillance role. The administrators also act as a conduit to transmit information to the members of the organization. This is the role of disseminator. When they represent the organization against strangers, the administrators also play the role of spokespersons.
Finally, Mintzberg identified four roles that revolve around decision making. As entrepreneurs, administrators initiate and supervise new projects that will improve the performance of their organization. As riot handlers, they take corrective actions.
They are responsible for directing the activities of others and supervising by performing the basic functions of the administration and performing various administrative or managerial roles . Its purpose is to generate an open communication environment, make the most of all resources. Detect all kinds of needs and motivate staff. From three aspects:
- Technical: use the procedures and techniques to ensure optimum performance.
- Human: it provides all the elements to give importance and value to people within the organization.
- Social: it helps them identify the internal and external needs of the organization, and the effects on the environment.
The Administrative Process
It is the tool that is applied in organizations to achieve their objectives and meet their lucrative and social needs . If the administrators or managers of an organization properly carry out their work through efficient and effective management, the organization is much more likely to achieve its goals; therefore, it can be said that the performance of managers or administrators can be measured according to the degree to which they comply with the administrative process.
Origin of the administrative process
The paradigm of the administrative process and functional areas was developed by Henri Fayol (1916). Although it is still discussed whether the administration is a science or, on the contrary, it is art, from a functionalist perspective it is stated that the basic function of the administration, as a practice, is to select appropriate objectives and direct the organization towards its achievement . This implies defining the administration as a process that, as such, requires the execution of a series of functions. Fayol described administrative activities as composed of the functions of planning, organizing, directing, coordinating and controlling
Phases of the administrative process
There are two phases in the administrative process , one mechanic and another dynamic.
In the first, mechanical phase, it is sought to establish what to do and the necessary structure to do it is prepared, including planning and organization activities.
The second, dynamic phase, refers to how that social organization that has been structured and understands management and control activities is managed.
- Planning: It consists of knowing what will be done in advance, what will be the direction that will be taken to achieve the objectives in the most efficient way. What do you want to achieve (objectives)? What will be done to achieve it? Who and when will you do it? How are you going to do it (resources)? Planning tries to create a desired future.
- Organization: It is a system that allows a balanced use of resources whose purpose is to establish a relationship between the work and the personnel that must execute it. It is a process where it is determined what must be done to achieve an established or planned purpose, dividing and coordinating activities and providing resources.
- Direction: It is the function that tries, through interpersonal influence, to ensure that everyone involved in the organization contributes to the achievement of its objectives. It is exercised through three sub-functions: leadership, motivation and communication.
- Control: It is the function that measures the results obtained by comparing them with those expected (planned) in order to seek continuous improvement.
There are some other activities or functions that have been added by various authors, including:
- Integration: Integrating, with what and who is going to be done, consists in selecting and obtaining the financial, material, technical and human resources considered as necessary for the proper functioning of a social organization., The integration groups communication and the harmonic meeting of human and material elements, training selection and compensation of staff.
- Forecast: Foresee, what can be done, consists in the diagnosis of the information and data available, so that the anticipation or construction of the context in which the organization will be found becomes possible.
Various criteria of the administrative process
It is important to know that there are different opinions regarding the number of stages that constitute the administrative process although, in fact, for all authors the essential elements are the same.
The stages that are generally considered paramount are: organization, control, direction, leadership and coordination, this for most authors.
- Planning: What will be done? What do you want to do?
- Organization: How is it going to be done?
- Address: See what is done.
- Control: How was it done?
Institutional Values of the Administration in the Administrative Process
The administration of an eminently social nature is governed by a series of values that provide not only moral validity to the population, but also ethical information that should guide the administrator’s behavior in society.
The institutional values of the administration are:
These are the most important, since they contribute to the welfare of society through:
- The improvement of the quality and price of the product and / or service to adequately satisfy the real needs of the human being.
- The improvement of the socioeconomic situation of the population.
- The fulfillment of fiscal obligations that allow the support of local and federal governments.
- Avoid unfair competition.
- The promotion of development through the creation of sources of work.
- Increase and preserve the natural and cultural wealth of society.
They are those that tend to improve the organization of the resources that the social group has, and that tend to:
- Promote innovation, research and technological development.
- Optimize resource coordination.
- Maximize efficiency in methods, systems and procedures.
- Reconcile interests among the same members of the social group.
They are those that are oriented to obtain economic benefits and that can be:
- Generating wealth
- Maximizing the obtaining of profits.
- Properly managing financial resources
- Promoting the economic development of the social group.
- Promoting the investment.